Decoding is the act of translating written words into sounds. You may find decoding easier if you highlight each phoneme or syllable in a word. This can be done with different colored markers, or by simply drawing a box around each word. Another method is to cover up irrelevant parts of the word with your finger, focusing only on the part that currently needs decoding. This can help prevent you from feeling overwhelmed by a word.
Reader focus cards are an inexpensive tool for those with reading difficulties. They have a colored reading window which can be used to highlight words, and a notch which can be used to reveal small parts of a word at a time, to allow you to decode without feeling overwhelmed. For digital documents, there are apps for both Windows and Mac that function like reader focus cards.
We can measure a student’s decoding accuracy—by counting the number of times the student makes the correct sound—or the student’s decoding speed (also called efficiency)—by counting the number of correctly decoded words per minute. As one might expect, high proficiency is indicated by a high rate of accuracy and/or speed.
~Help for Struggling Readers

Key Takeaways:

Teachers often have their students read words they have not come into contact with so that they learn to use a dictionary early and to be curious about context.
When teaching sounds, educators have to be precise as to how they explain the anomalies in the English language.
When having difficulty sounding a word out, using a ruler to slowly reveal one letter at a time assists in learning words by pronunciation.
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